Wednesday, May 20, 2020

44 Landlocked Countries That Dont Touch an Ocean

Approximately one-fifth of the worlds countries are landlocked, meaning they have no access to the oceans. There are 44 landlocked countries that do not have direct access to an ocean or ocean-accessible sea (such as the Mediterranean Sea). Why Is Being Landlocked an Issue? While a country such as Switzerland has thrived despite its lack of access to the worlds oceans, being landlocked has many disadvantages. Some landlocked countries rank among the poorest in the world. Some of the issues of being landlocked include: Lack of access to fishing and oceanic food sourcesHigh transportation and transit costs because of a lack of access to ports and world shipping operationsGeopolitical vulnerabilities from dependence on neighboring countries for access to world markets and natural resourcesMilitary limitations because of the lack of naval options What Continents Have No Landlocked-Countries? North America has no landlocked countries, and Australia is rather obviously not landlocked. Within the United States, over half of the 50 states are landlocked with no direct access to the worlds oceans. Many states, however, do have water access to the oceans via the Hudson Bay, Chesapeake Bay, or Mississippi River. Landlocked Countries in South America South America has just two landlocked countries: Bolivia and Paraguay. Landlocked Countries in Europe Europe has 14 landlocked countries: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland, and Vatican City. Landlocked Countries in Africa Africa has 16 landlocked countries: Botswana, Burundi, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, South Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Lesotho is unusual in that it is landlocked by just one country (South Africa). Landlocked Countries in Asia Asia has 12 landlocked countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Laos, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Note that several of the countries in western Asia border the landlocked Caspian Sea, a feature that does open some transit and trade opportunities. Disputed Regions that Are Landlocked Four regions that are not fully recognized as independent countries are landlocked: Kosovo, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia, and Transnistria. What Are the Two Doubly-Landlocked Countries? There are two, special, landlocked countries that are known as doubly-landlocked countries, completely surrounded by other landlocked countries. The two doubly-landlocked countries are Uzbekistan (surrounded by Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan) and Liechtenstein (surrounded by Austria and Switzerland). What Is the Largest Landlocked Country? Kazakhstan is the worlds ninth largest country but is the worlds largest landlocked country. Its 1.03 million square miles (2.67 million km2) and is bordered by Russia, China, the Kyrgyz Republic, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and the landlocked Caspian Sea. What Are the Most Recently Added Landlocked Countries? The most recent addition to the list of landlocked countries is South Sudan which gained independence in 2011. Serbia is also a recent addition to the list of landlocked countries. The country formerly had access to the Adriatic Sea, but when Montenegro became an independent country in 2006, Serbia lost its ocean access. Edited by Allen Grove.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Success Of The Great Recession - 1375 Words

The Great Recession which lasted from 2008 to 2010 is often regarded as the greatest economic crisis since the Great Depression which took place during the 1930s. The causes of both crises can be said to be similar as both lie in the actions of the federal government. While the crash of the stock market in 1929 is said to be one of the major causes and sometimes even the main cause of the Great Depression, there are also other circumstances that led to this economic crisis. Bank failures during the 1930s also added to decline in the economy. The failure of hundreds of banks caused people to lose their savings and businesses to lose their operating capital. With the crash of the stock market, there was also a reduction in purchasing in the economy (consumer demand). A reduction in consumer demand led to a reduction in production and hence a reduction in the workforce. With a reduction in production and the workforce, the unemployment rate rose drastically to around 25%. Due to the num ber of businesses failing, President Hoover signed into law the Smooth-Hawley tariff to help protect the failing businesses. However, this created unintended consequences as trade was stifled between America and foreign countries, further adding to America’s economic crisis. There are many factors that led to the Great Recession in 2008. The major cause is said to be the decline of the collapse of the housing market. It is even said that the Great Recession has origins dating till back to theShow MoreRelatedThe Success Of The Great Recession1320 Words   |  6 PagesThe Great Recession began in December 2007 and officially ended in June 2009 while many macroeconomic forces were at fault, the primary cause was securitizations of debt. While debt is an important part of any economy, allowing for the financing of business activities, the purchase of homes, and continuing education, there is also an inherent risk in the system. 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However, without the proper strategy and implementation, it is difficult for any business to survive regardless of the industry or the size of the company. The largest retail company in the world is Walmart. The success of Walmart is because of its sound strategic management decisions and it ability to implement its strategic decision. A majorRead MoreAustralia s Economic Success And Growth Rates1699 Words   |  7 Pagesof regional economies (Heritage.org). The reasons for Australia’s ongoing success is mainly because of the boom in foreign demand of importing the plethora of natural resources and minerals the country contains, combined with the structural economic policies enacted in the 1980’s (The Economist - Australia’s Economy). 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The company seems to have many opportunities to regain the industrial statues that made them a thriving company prior to the 2007-2009 economic recession. Floyd Palmer, owner gives the company the most prestigious advantage, the combination of thirty-year’s experience. Although, Floyd is a Baby-Boomer he understands that hard work today does not come cheap for most his age. For Floyd, learning a skilledRead MoreJohn Maynard Keynes And The Classical Model Essay1167 Words   |  5 PagesPart One John Maynard Keynes is referred to as one of the most well known economists of his time. Not only was he able to come up with a solution to essentially try to move the economy out of recession and stop booms and busts, but his theory is still being used in todays day and age 70 years later. One big question that has been asked repeatedly about Keynes theory is why did he not believe in self-adjustment of the economy. Keynes rejected the idea that market economies would automatically move

World War 1 Essay Example For Students

World War 1 Essay Chapter 1: The Right to Make WarSince 1795, when Immanuel Kant published in his old age his treatise on Perpetual Peace, many have considered it an established fact that war is the destruction of all good and the origin of all evil. In spite of all that history teaches, no conviction is felt that the struggle between nations is inevitable, and the growth of civilization is credited with a power to which war must yield. But, undisturbed by such human theories and the change of times, war has again and again marched from country to country with the clash of arms, and has proved its destructive as well as creative and purifying power. It has not succeeded in teaching mankind what its real nature is. Long periods of war, far from convincing men of the necessity of war, have, on the contrary, always revived the wish to exclude war, where possible, from the political intercourse of nations. This wish and this hope are widely disseminated even today. The maintenance of peace is lauded as the only goal at which statesmanship should aim. This unqualified desire for peace has obtained in our days a quite peculiar power over mens spirits. This aspiration finds its public expression in peace leagues and peace congresses; the Press of every country and of every party opens its columns to it. The current in this direction is, indeed, so strong that the majority of Governments professoutwardly, at any ratethat the necessity of maintaining peace is the real aim of their policy; while when a war breaks out the aggressor is universally stigmatized, and all Governments exert themselves, partly in reality, partly in pretense, to extinguish the conflagration. Pacific ideals, to be sure, are seldom the real motive of their action. They usually employ the need of peace as a cloak under which to promote their own political aims. This was the real position of affairs at the Hague Congresses,1 and this is also the meaning of the action of the United States of America, who in recent times have earnestly tried to conclude treaties for the establishment of Arbitration Courts, first and foremost with England, but also with Japan, France, and Germany. No practical results, it must be said, have so far been achieved. We can hardly assume that a real love of peace prompts these efforts. This is shown by the fact that precisely those Powers which, as the weaker, are exposed to aggression, and therefore were in the greatest need of international protection, have been completely passed over in the American proposals for Arbitration Courts. It must consequently be assumed that very matter-of-fact political motives led the Americans, with their commercial instincts, to take such steps, and induced perfidious Albion 2 to accede to the proposals. We may suppose that England intended to protect her rear in event of a war with Germany, but that America wished to have a free hand in order to follow her policy of sovereignty in Central America without hindrance, and to carry out her plans regarding the Panama Canal in the exclusive interests of America. Both countries certainly entertained the hope of gaining advantage over the other signatory of the treaty, and of winning the lions share for themselves. The orists and fanatics imagine that they see in the efforts of President Taft a great step forward on the path to perpetual peace, and enthusiastically agree with him. Even the Minister for Foreign Affairs in England, with well-affected idealism, termed the procedure of the United States an era in the history of mankind. .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 , .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .postImageUrl , .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 , .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138:hover , .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138:visited , .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138:active { border:0!important; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138:active , .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138 .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9339b544a66916b879666e7f698f1138:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Violence6 EssayThis desire for peace has rendered most civilized nations anemic, and marks a decay of spirit and political courage such as has often been shown by a race of Epigoni. It has always been, Heinrich von Treitschke tells us, the weary, spiritless, and exhausted ages which have played with the dream of perpetual peace. 3Everyone will, within certain limits, admit that the endeavors to diminish the dangers of war and to mitigate the sufferings which war entails are justifiable. It is an incontestable fact that war temporarily disturbs industrial life, interrupts quiet economic development, brings widespread misery with it, and emphasizes the primitive brutality of man. It is therefore

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The portrayal of children and family relationships in A Christmas Carol by Dickens Essay Example

The portrayal of children and family relationships in A Christmas Carol by Dickens Paper A Christmas carol was written by Charles Dickens in 1843 it is a novel about a man called Scrooge journeying through Christmass past, present and future, he is ultimately transformed from an arrogant, obstinate and insensitive old man to a generous, warm hearted and caring human being. Dickens uses a wide range of techniques in A Christmas carol to portray his thoughts and feelings; he uses repetition, effective language, powerful verbs, unique imagery and a variety of sentence lengths and punctuation. The first family scene that I felt was important was a family scene at the Cratchits; Dickens describes children in a way that was not always deemed correct in Victorian times. Every child was conducting itself like forty, this tells me that Dickens doesnt want children to experience what he had to in his childhood, Dickens was sent to work in a factory when he was young to support his family, as shown in this quote he wants them enjoy themselves to the full In the first Cratchit scene the younger Cratchits are dancing, the young cratchets danced around the table, dickens condones the childrens actions and is happy they are having fun. We will write a custom essay sample on The portrayal of children and family relationships in A Christmas Carol by Dickens specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The portrayal of children and family relationships in A Christmas Carol by Dickens specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The portrayal of children and family relationships in A Christmas Carol by Dickens specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Dickens uses imagery to involve us in the Christmas meal and make us see what they are eating, Dickens also shows how close families are no matter how troubled, using a Christmas pudding; nobody said or thought it was at all small pudding for a large pudding. The size doesnt cross the familys mind and as long as they are all together they are happy. In the scene, Dickens uses the phrase, Universal admiration, to describe how the family feel about the goose. It shows that even though they havent got a real turkey they dont take anything for granted. The phrase implies that the whole universe admires it but in reality its just an average goose. Following on, in the next family scene you see the closeness of the Cratchits on Christmas day. Dickens also uses the idea of their dinner to portray closeness within the family: at last all the dishes were set on, and grace was said. This is in contrast to the Upper Classes of the day when the adults would entertain guests and the children would eat separately. It shows the closeness a poor family can share without much money. In the scene with the goose Dickens uses the phrase, Universal admiration, to describe how the family feel about the goose. It shows that even though they havent got a real turkey they dont take anything for granted. The phrase implies that the whole universe admires it but in reality its just an average goose. Dickens uses his narrative style with a variety of sentence lengths and verbs to capture the intensity of the scene, he sets the pace of the scene and ensures it gives us the impression that the family are all rushing with excitement and to show his thoughts about how Christmas should be celebrated: two smaller Cratchits came tearing in, screaming. This quote shows the excitement of the children with the words: tearing and screaming. These are not words normally associated with happy children but using an eleven-line sentence, his narrative style and these verbs, Dickens ensures that the scene is fast, boisterous, detailed and joyous. Furthermore he also uses his original imagery very well in this Cratchit scene: potatoes bubbling up, knocking loudly to be let out. This image keeps in well with the franticness of the scene, when the family are getting the dinner ready, as the potatoes need to knock loudly to be heard over all of the noise and amount that is happening. When the second of the three spirits appears two new characters are introduced, a girl called want and a boy called ignorance. Dickens describes want and ignorance as twisted and unreal: No change, no degradation, no perversion of humanity. The repetition of no implies that there is no hope or future for these children, Dickens uses the word perversion to imply that the children are unnatural and twisted and if they were any other children he would use a much kinder and warmer word because he is such a lover of children. Dickens uses a variety of adjectives to create imagery to describe ignorance and want: yellow, meagre, ragged, scowling, wolf like. He attempts to give the reader an animal like image; the word wolf like gives the image thin and repulsive to make us the readers think of them as anything but children. Ragged and scowling support the wolf like image because those words are normally what we associate wolves with. The word scowling interested me because I feel that normal children cry but wolves scowl and I can imagine the children doing that when they arent happy or dont condone something. The mood and atmosphere changes greatly in the second scene involving the Cratchits this is mainly due to tiny Tims death, Dickens writes in a style that shows he is shocked of how the atmosphere differs in both scenes, he uses repetition to show the mellow atmosphere quiet, very quiet. Dickens gives us the impression that he is unsure whether these are really the Cratchits, the repetition worked well because it is almost like a question, are they really that quiet? It seems like he doesnt want it to be the Cratchit children because they were so happy at one point, so he is waiting for the answer yes it isnt really the Cratchit children, it is almost as if he is feeling the Cratchits pain. Dickens uses the simile still as statues to give us an image of the Cratchits not moving at all, not running and dancing around the table! The Cratchits are all upset because of the death of Tiny Tim and small things persist in making them even lower: the colour hurt my eyes, the colour reminds them of vibrant and colourful Tiny Tim. Tiny Tim played an important role in the Cratchit family and once he has gone Dickens style of writing changes from an upbeat and happy style to a sad, emotional and mellow style. To conclude I feel that Dickens does portray his thought and feelings in A Christmas Carol and you can tell what he is feeling and you can tell what kind of a man he is and what he thinks about children, he doesnt go along with traditional Victorian views enjoys seeing children play and be happy and when they are not he lets you know that isnt happy about it.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Free Essays on Compaq

. Strategic Profile and Case Analysis Purpose During the 1980's Compaq Computer Company was a leader in the computer hardware industry. Its name became synonymous with cutting edge, high quality, products that sold for a premium. This premium price for its products allowed Compaq to outspend most of its competitors on research and development (R&D). As technology and the marketplace changed, Compaq lost its ability to charge a premium price for its products. Consumers, who were quickly becoming computer literate, were realizing that paying Compaq's premium prices was no longer necessary. Hardware and software advances where taking away some of the importance of the expensive features that Compaq's products offered. In addition, a declining economic environment was making even the larger of Compaq's end-users looking for ways to cut their growing computer budgets. Facing its third major crisis in a decade, Compaq was looking like it would become another Texas corporate statistic if it did not do something to reverse the downward trend of its sales. The company was also showing signs of organizational problems that may have been overlooked previously because of its remarkable sales growth. The organization's culture was suffering from a lack of communication between divisions as well as a growing riff between even the company's founders. The company was in two camps struggling for control of the its destiny. II. Situation Analysis A. General Environmental Analysis (socially, economically, globally, demographic, legal...) The United States is a leader in the computer hardware industry. While the Japanese are a large producers of electronic components, U.S. companies are still among the leaders in high technology. Sony Corporation is fast catching, especially in the area of miniaturizing technology. The Walkman is one example of the Sony's ability to make a bulky product smaller. One potentially big problem for U.S. ... Free Essays on Compaq Free Essays on Compaq . Strategic Profile and Case Analysis Purpose During the 1980's Compaq Computer Company was a leader in the computer hardware industry. Its name became synonymous with cutting edge, high quality, products that sold for a premium. This premium price for its products allowed Compaq to outspend most of its competitors on research and development (R&D). As technology and the marketplace changed, Compaq lost its ability to charge a premium price for its products. Consumers, who were quickly becoming computer literate, were realizing that paying Compaq's premium prices was no longer necessary. Hardware and software advances where taking away some of the importance of the expensive features that Compaq's products offered. In addition, a declining economic environment was making even the larger of Compaq's end-users looking for ways to cut their growing computer budgets. Facing its third major crisis in a decade, Compaq was looking like it would become another Texas corporate statistic if it did not do something to reverse the downward trend of its sales. The company was also showing signs of organizational problems that may have been overlooked previously because of its remarkable sales growth. The organization's culture was suffering from a lack of communication between divisions as well as a growing riff between even the company's founders. The company was in two camps struggling for control of the its destiny. II. Situation Analysis A. General Environmental Analysis (socially, economically, globally, demographic, legal...) The United States is a leader in the computer hardware industry. While the Japanese are a large producers of electronic components, U.S. companies are still among the leaders in high technology. Sony Corporation is fast catching, especially in the area of miniaturizing technology. The Walkman is one example of the Sony's ability to make a bulky product smaller. One potentially big problem for U.S. ...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Historical Profile of the Roman Republic

Historical Profile of the Roman Republic Rome was once just a little hilly city, but soon its capable fighters  and engineers took over the surrounding countryside, then the boot of Italy,  then the area around the Mediterranean Sea, and finally, even further, extending into Asia, Europe, and Africa. These Romans  lived in the Roman Republic   a  time period and a system of government.   The Meaning of Republic: The word republic comes from the Latin words for thing and of the people The res publica or respublica referred to the public property or the common weal, as the online Lewis and Short Latin dictionary defines it, but it could also mean the administration. Thus, the term republic as first employed as a description of Roman government had less baggage than it carries today. Do you see the connection between democracy and republic? The word democracy comes from Greek [demos the people; kratos strength/rule] and means rule of or by the people. The Rise of Democracy The Roman Republic Begins: The Romans, who were already fed up with their Etruscan kings, were spurred to action after a member of the royal family raped a patrician matron named Lucretia. The Roman people expelled their kings, driving them from Rome. Even the name of king (rex) had become hateful, a fact that becomes significant when the emperors took control as (but resisted the title of) king. Following the last of the kings, the Romans did what they were always good at copying what they saw around them and adapting it into a form that worked better. That form is what we call the Roman Republic, which endured for 5 centuries, beginning in the year 509 B.C., according to tradition. Tarquin, the Last King of RomeBrutus, Lucius Junius BrutusRape of LucretiaFamous Men of Rome The Government of the Roman Republic: 3 Branches of GovernmentHaving witnessed the problems of the monarchy on their own land, and aristocracy and democracy among the Greeks, when the Romans started the Republic, they opted for a mixed form of government, with 3 branches: consuls, senate, and an assembly of the people. Cursus HonorumAristocratic men were expected to follow a certain series of life events, from the military to the political. In the political sphere, you couldnt just decide you want to be consul and apply for the position. You had to be elected to other lesser offices first. Learn about of the magisterial offices and order in which they must be held. ComitiaAssemblies were an aspect of democratic government. There was an assembly of the centuries and an assembly of the tribes.ConsulsAt the top of the political ladder at least of the political offices were imperium (power), since there wee also censors who lacked imperium were the consuls (occasionally, dictators), two of which served for a period of a y ear. Consult this list of consuls for those pairs of men who held office during the period of the collapse of the Republic. Censors of the Roman RepublicCensors didnt rate movies in ancient Rome but did conduct the census. Here is a list of the censors of Rome during the Republican period. Periods of the Roman Republic: The Roman Republic followed the legendary period of kings, although history dosed heavily with legends continued into the period of the Roman Republic, with a more historical era only beginning after the Gauls sacked Rome [see the Battle of the Allia c. 387 B.C.]. The period of the Roman Republic may be further subdivided into: an early period, when Rome was expanding to the start of the Punic Wars (to c. 261 B.C.),a second period from the Punic Wars until the Gracchi and civil war (to 134) during which Rome came to dominate the Mediterranean, anda third period, from the Gracchi to the fall of the Republic (to 30 B.C.). Timeline for the End of the Roman Republic The Growth of the Roman Republic: Wars of the Roman RepublicRome emerged only gradually as the leader of Italy and then the Mediterranean. Starting in the legendary period under the kings, Rome had joined forces with Sabines (as in the rape of the Sabine women) and Etruscans (who ruled as kings of the Romans). During the Roman Republic, Rome formed treaties with neighboring villages and city-states to allow them to join forces either defensively or aggressively. Roman Treaties of the Roman RepublicDuring Romes early period of expansion, from the fall of the monarchy in 510 B.C. until the mid-third century, she gradually spread her dominion over the peninsula of Italy, making treaties with all the states she conquered. The Growth of RomeRome started gaining strength from about 510 B.C., when the Romans threw out their last king, until the middle of the 3rd century B.C. During this, the early Republican period, Rome made and broke strategic treaties with neighboring groups in order to help her conquer other city-state s. Expansion of Rome Beyond ItalyRome didnt initially set up to conquer the world, but it gradually did so, anyway. A side effect of its empire-building was the reduction of Republican Romes democratic policies. The End of the Roman Republic: Books on the Late Republic / Roman RevolutionSometimes it seems as though there is too much material on Rome around the time of Julius Caesar. Theres a reason for this many first-hand accounts a rarity in ancient history. The authors of the following books distil the Latin primary sources to present authoritative pictures of the Roman Republic when it was the dominant world power abroad but in revolt or chaos closer to home. Articles on the End of the Roman RepublicLook at the Gracchi brothers, the conflict between Sulla and Marius, external forces like Mithradates of Pontus and pirates, the social war, and other factors that strained the Roman republic and led to the formation of the first period of the Roman Empire, the Principate.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Naplion invasion of egypt and its impact on mehmed Ali Essay

Naplion invasion of egypt and its impact on mehmed Ali - Essay Example To this end, the Napoleon took control of Alexandria, massacred the Mamluk army at Imbabah and Subra Khit. They consequently captured Cairo on 25th July 1798. It is critical to note that Napoleon ordered his troops to respect the religion, women and culture of Egypt upon their invasion. Evidently, Napoleon employed this tactic so that he would appear as liberator to the general Egyptian populace. Moreover, upon conquering part of Egypt, Napoleon set out to restructure the military tactics of the Egyptian by training them in French warfare and recruiting them to his Grande Armee. Furthermore, Napoleon was accompanied by scientists and scholars who investigated all facets of life in Egyptian history and contemporary periods. However, it must be noted that the French domination of Egypt was short lived since the Ottoman and British forces joined drive them out. On 1st August 1798, French ships were destroyed at Abu Qir by Lord Nelson’s British fleet. This led to the isolation of French forces in Egypt. To this end, war was declared against France by Sultan Selim 3. Upon the expulsion of the Napoleon’s army from Egypt, a power struggle among the Mameluks saw the rise of Mehmet Ali Pasha as the ultimate governor of Egypt. Evidently, Mehment was inspired to introduce modern changes to the Ottoman army based on an European model. His aspiration was in light of the exemplary model of Napoleon’s army that had previously defeated him at Abukir in 1799. To this end, he introduced several industrial and agricultural reforms that acted as a foundation for modeling a professional military. The end result was new armed forces organization known as al-Nizam al-Jedid. Furthermore, Mohamed converted agricultural land into state land from which he derived profits. He equally improved the irrigation system of Egypt and introduced cotton as a cash